Cybersecurity and resilience are increasingly critical in our interconnected world. The Network and Information Systems Directive 2 (NIS2) is a framework within the European Union that protects critical services and digital infrastructure. 

Understanding NIS2 provisions helps professionals address vulnerabilities and prevent cyberattacks on infrastructure. In this ISMS Connect guide, we’ll demystify NIS2 with simple terms and step-by-step instructions.

Ready to get started? Let’s dive in.

What Is NIS2?

NIS2 is a critical framework to ensure the security and resilience of essential services and digital infrastructure across the European Union. 

NIS2 requires organizations in various sectors to enhance cybersecurity measures to prevent disruptions and breaches. Compliance can reduce risks and promote a safer digital environment.

ISMS Connect helps professionals navigate NIS2 and strengthen cybersecurity without excessive spending. We offer valuable guidance and a program designed to simplify information security management and compliance. Our successful partnerships with hundreds of companies worldwide have empowered over 500 companies to achieve quicker implementation within their budget.

Sectors in the Scope of NIS2

Sectors in the scope of NIS2 encompass various essential services and critical infrastructure vital to modern society’s functioning. 

These sectors include:

  • Energy
  • Transport 
  • Banking
  • Healthcare
  • Water supply
  • Digital services

Key Focus Areas for NIS2 Compliance

According to an insightful step-by-step guide to NIS2 compliance provided by Yogosha, the critical aspects that demand meticulous attention within this compliance framework are multifaceted. These focus areas provide organizations with a comprehensive roadmap toward safeguarding their essential services and digital infrastructure.

  • Governance: Define roles, responsibilities, and accountability across the organization.
  • Incident Response: Deploy advanced monitoring tools and develop well-defined incident response plans. 
  • Securing and Testing Perimeters and Assets: Secure critical assets and test the resilience of their perimeters.

Why Is NIS2 Compliance Important?

NIS2 compliance is a crucial defense against evolving cyber threats for a number of compelling reasons, including:

  • Improved Security: Compliance helps organizations to develop and maintain a comprehensive approach to security.
  • Data Protection: Organizations must protect sensitive data from unauthorized access or misuse.
  • Cost Savings: Achieving NIS2 compliance can help avoid costly fines, penalties, and other associated liabilities.

In addition, NIS2 is a legal requirement for organizations in the EU that provide an “essential function” in terms of the services they offer to their customers. This means for many organizations, NIS2 compliance isn’t just nice to have—it’s mandatory.

How To Achieve NIS2 Compliance

1. Assessment and Scope Determination

To comply with the NIS2 Directive, assess if your organization qualifies as a “provider of essential services” or a “digital service provider.” 

Examples of essential services can include:

  • Energy
  • Transport
  • Banking
  • Health
  • Water
  • Digital service providers

Once you determine your classification, identify the systems, assets, and processes within your organization that fall under the scope of NIS2. For example, a bank’s financial systems, customer service applications, and physical security measures would fall under NIS2.

2. Risk Assessment and Management

Risk assessment and management is a crucial step in ensuring the security of your network and information systems. By conducting a thorough risk assessment, you can identify potential vulnerabilities and threats that may pose risks to your organization. Once these risks are identified, it is important to prioritize them based on their potential impact and likelihood.

ISMS Connect can play a valuable role in risk assessment and management. It is a platform that allows organizations to centralize and streamline their information security management processes. It provides tools and frameworks for conducting risk assessments, documenting vulnerabilities and threats, and developing mitigation strategies.

3. Security Measures and Controls

Companies should implement various technical and organizational security measures to safeguard against cyber threats. These measures include deploying firewalls, a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external networks, thereby preventing unauthorized access. Intrusion detection systems are crucial as they monitor network traffic and identify any suspicious activity or potential attacks.

Developing incident response plans is crucial to address and recover from security incidents quickly. These plans outline the steps to be taken in case of a breach or cyber attack, including notifying appropriate personnel, isolating affected systems, and restoring operations.

To ensure compliance with the NIS2 requirements, companies should strive to attain ISO® 27001 certification. This certification demonstrates that an organization has implemented an information security management system (ISMS) that meets internationally recognized standards for information security. ISMS Connect helps companies establish and maintain their ISMS effectively, ensuring comprehensive security measures are in place.

4. Monitoring and Reporting

Establish real-time monitoring mechanisms, such as intrusion detection systems (IDSs) and log management systems, to monitor and report security incidents effectively. IDSs detect suspicious activities and generate alerts for immediate response. Log management systems record and store security event logs for investigation and vulnerability identification.

You must also maintain comprehensive records as required by the NIS2 Directive for regulatory compliance and incident analysis. Develop a well-defined incident response plan with clear reporting procedures and timelines, ensuring timely communication with relevant national authorities, such as reporting a data breach to the national data protection authority within a specified timeframe.

5. Personnel Training and Awareness

Organizations can educate their employees on cybersecurity best practices, data protection, and incident response procedures by implementing comprehensive training programs. This empowers staff members to make informed decisions and take appropriate actions to mitigate cyber risks.

For example, employees can be trained to identify and report phishing emails, use strong passwords, and securely handle sensitive data. By fostering a culture of security awareness, organizations can ensure that all staff members understand their roles in maintaining compliance and contribute to protecting company data and systems.

Organizations can improve employee cybersecurity knowledge through periodic reminders, newsletters, and simulated phishing exercises to test their awareness and response to potential threats.

6. Supplier and Third-Party Management

Regarding supplier and third-party management, it is crucial to assess the security practices of these external entities. This evaluation should include a thorough examination of their cybersecurity measures and their compliance with NIS2 regulations. 

For example, a company may assess a cloud service provider’s encryption protocols, data access controls, and incident response procedures to determine their level of security readiness. Additionally, organizations should establish contractual agreements with suppliers that explicitly address cybersecurity requirements and NIS2 compliance. 

Organizations need a risk management framework for suppliers and third parties, which includes continuous monitoring, audits, and compliance with cybersecurity standards and NIS2 regulations.

7. Testing and Assessment

Regular testing and assessment of security measures are crucial to ensure the effectiveness of your overall cybersecurity strategy. Conducting vulnerability assessments helps identify any weaknesses in your systems, such as outdated software or misconfigured settings, that cybercriminals could exploit. For example, regularly scanning your network for vulnerabilities using tools like Nessus or OpenVAS can help you discover unpatched software or misconfigured firewalls.

Penetration testing, on the other hand, involves simulating real-world attacks to assess the security of your systems and identify potential entry points for hackers. Hiring ethical hackers to attempt to breach your network or web applications can help uncover any vulnerabilities that might have been overlooked during regular assessments. This proactive approach allows you to address these weaknesses before they can be exploited.

8. Documentation and Record Keeping

Maintaining thorough documentation ensures NIS2 compliance. This documentation should include detailed risk assessments that outline potential vulnerabilities and threats to your systems. For example, you may document the assessment of your network infrastructure, identifying any weak points or areas that require additional security measures.

Additionally, your documentation should outline the security measures implemented to mitigate these risks. This can include details about firewalls, intrusion detection systems, encryption protocols, and access controls. For instance, you could document installing a robust firewall that monitors and filters incoming and outgoing network traffic.

9. Regular Review and Improvement

Regular compliance strategy review and improvement is essential to ensure that it effectively addresses evolving cyber threats and adapts to changes in your organization’s technology landscape. By conducting periodic reviews, you can identify potential gaps or weaknesses in your strategy and make necessary adjustments. 

Organizations should evaluate their security readiness by following response procedures. It is also important to establish clear contractual agreements with suppliers regarding cybersecurity requirements and NIS2 compliance. A risk management framework should be implemented for suppliers and third parties, which includes continuous monitoring, audits, and compliance with cybersecurity standards.

10. Engagement with Regulatory Authorities

Organizations must communicate with regulatory authorities to comply with laws. This includes reporting incidents and seeking guidance. Collaboration among departments is necessary for NIS2 compliance. Stay informed about regulations and cybersecurity practices for a strong security posture.

In this regard, ISMS Connect can be a valuable resource. At ISMS Connect, we’re dedicated to democratizing information security and compliance. We offer a product designed specifically for small- and medium-sized companies, allowing them to quickly and affordably create an information security management system (ISMS) that conforms to security standards.


Streamlining incident reporting, improving overall security posture, allocating adequate funding for cybersecurity, and ensuring NIS2 compliance are all crucial elements in today’s digital landscape. These measures are necessary to protect organizations from evolving cyber threats and safeguard critical infrastructure.

ISMS Connect helps SMBs navigate information security management with confidence. By breaking down complex information security management, offering a community hub for guidance, and delivering on-demand support, ISMS Connect empowers organizations to embrace NIS2 compliance without the burden of high costs or consultants.

Sign up today and start your information security journey.